What Are The Different Branches Of Agriculture

What Are The Different Branches Of Agriculture – Soil science is a discipline that deals with the study of soil as a natural resource for plant growth. What is soil?

From an agricultural perspective, soil is the unconsolidated upper part of the earth’s crust that serves as a natural medium for the growth of terrestrial plants. In short: soil is the habitat of plants.

What Are The Different Branches Of Agriculture

But different branches of science define soil differently, for example, a geologist or mining engineer might call it “broken rock or debris covering rocks,” and an engineer might call it “soil or material for houses.” and roads”; and an economist might call it “land.”

Sustainable Development Of Agriculture: A System Dynamics Model

Soil science is an applied scientific discipline of a holistic nature due to its interrelationship with many other sciences.

It refers to soil-dwelling organisms and their biology, functions and activities. For example, insects and nematodes.

This field deals with primary and secondary soil minerals and their role in soil chemistry, physics, fertility and biology and their relationship to soil formation.

Soil genesis deals with the weathering of rocks and minerals, the factors and processes of soil formation, and soil classification is the systematic rearrangement of soils into groups or categories.

Name The Branch Of Agriculture That Deals With Cultivation Of Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers And Ornamental Plants

It deals with the mechanical behavior of soil mass ie. physical properties of soil, focusing on the transport of substances, especially water and energy, into the soil.

This applies to excess oil soluble salts, their recovery and soil treatment for saline agriculture.

Soil testing deals with the systematic examination, description, classification, mapping, and interpretation of soils in the field and laboratory in terms of their suitability for various farming systems.

It deals with protecting the soil from physical loss due to erosion (wind and water) or chemical damage. Therefore, soil conservation combines all farming and land use methods to protect the soil from damage caused by natural or human factors.

Economy Of Agriculture. Being A Series Of Compendious Essays On Different Branches Of Farming

These are important field soil microbial communities, their roles and characteristics in soil fertility and amelioration, especially feeding on diseases caused by root rot or soil-borne plant pathogenic microbes. Pearl millet and frost-prone autumn Sorkhum-Sudan grass pasture for raising cattle in a semi-arid region.

Biological control of pests using high-dose insecticides: effects of sublethal concentrations of pyrethroids on host-seeking behavior of an aphid parasitoid.

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All articles he publishes are immediately available under a worldwide open license. No special permission is required to reproduce all or part of the article he published, including figures and tables. For articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY open access license, any part of the article may be reused without permission, as long as the original article is clearly cited.

Solution: Land Composition

Sex papers are the most advanced research in this field with great potential. Characteristic studies are submitted by call or individual recommendation from scientific editors and reviewed before publication.

A feature paper can be an original research article, a seminal novel study, often involving several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review document that provides clear and concise updates on recent advances in the field and systematically reviews the most interesting scientific developments. literature This type of paper provides perspective for future research directions or potential applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations from scientific journal editors around the world. The editors select a number of recently published articles in the journal that they believe will be of particular interest to the authors or important to the field. Its purpose is to provide information about the most interesting works published in various research areas of the journal.

Received: May 6, 2021 / Revised: June 4, 2021 / Accepted: June 4, 2021 / Published: June 11, 2021

Crop Diseases: How To Identify, Control, And Prevent

(This article refers to the special issue “Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes and Byproducts: Applications in Food, Pharmaceuticals, and Healthcare.”)

Lipins are versatile enzymes that catalyze a variety of reactions. Furthermore, lipases are the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnology and organic chemistry. Lipids can be produced by many organisms, including animals, plants, and microorganisms. Microbial lipases are more stable, substrate specific and have lower production costs than other sources of these enzymes. Although commercial lipases are widely used as biocatalysts, there are still many challenges in the production of microbial lipases using renewable sources such as straw, corn, cake oil, and industrial wastewater as the main component of microbial culture. Submersible fermentation (SMF) and solid phase fermentation (SSF) are two important technologies for lipase production by microorganisms. Therefore, this review focuses on microbial lipases, particularly their function, specificity, types and production technology, including the use of renewable agro-industrial residues and waste materials.

Lipid or triacylglycerol acyl ester hydrolases belong to the family of serine hydrolases and are called carboxylic acid esterases (CE Claude Bernard discovered the first use of lipase in 1848. His first major scientific discovery was that the pancreas produced a substance that emulsified and saponified fats. This discovery not only explains part of the exocrine function of the pancreas, but also the mechanisms of fat digestion and absorption [1]. Lipids can be used by a variety of organisms, including animals that use organs such as the pancreas, liver, stomach, and intestinal wall, as well as the seeds and vegetative organs of plants and microorganisms [2]. Microorganisms such as bacteria [3] , fungi [4] , and yeasts can produce intracellular, extracellular, or membrane-bound lipase. In addition, microbial lipases are more stable, have substrate specificity and have lower production costs compared to other sources of these enzymes [6, 7, 8]. Eikmannin [9] isolated the first microbial lipases from Bacillus prodigiosus, Bacillus pyocyaneus, and Bacillus fluorescens, now Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

// The β hydrolase layer is constructed with a lip, consisting primarily of eight parallel β-strands surrounded by α-helices that modify a central supercoiled β-sheet. In addition, some changes in the α/β fold have been found in some lipases, consisting of differences in the size of α-shells or β-sheets and loop length [10]. The primary catalytic site of lipase is a region with the sequence G-X-S-X-G, where G = glycine, S = serine, and X = any amino acid. The catalytically active part of lipase is found not only in lipase but also in other hydrolytic enzymes such as serine hydrolases [11]. The main structural parts of lipase include an envelope, a binding pocket, an oxyanion hole, and a difide bond. The envelope consists of one or more α-chains linked by a flexible structure to the core structure of the enzyme. The gate is a transposable element and can open the active site upon reaction of the two-step system. The active site of the enzyme is a cap that allows access to the reaction substrate [12]. The binding pocket is the active site of lipases and is located on the central sheet of the protein structure. Lipase substrate binding sites differ in size, shape, pocket depth, and physicochemical properties of amino acids. Three types of pocket geometry can be distinguished: hydrophobic cleft, functional or tunnel-like. The lip of Rhizopus and Rhizomucor has a cleft-like hydrophobic binding site located on the protein surface. Burkholderia spp. produced lipases have a functionally similar binding site, and, for example, a lipase from Candida rugosa has a tunnel-like binding site [13]. The oxyanion hole affects the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. This important component greatly affects hydrolysis because during the reaction the oxyanion hole stabilizes the charge distribution and lowers the energy of the tetrahedral intermediate state by forming hydrogen bonds. Lipases are also characterized by the presence of difide bridges, which provide enzyme stability and are often important for their catalytic activity [14]. The structure of Bacillus subtilis lipase (Lip A) is shown in Figure 1.

Pdf) The System Of Effective Management Of Crop Production In Modern Conditions

The classification of lipases is based on the source and specificity of these enzymes (Figure 2). Lipolytic microorganisms are found in many oil-contaminated areas, such as oil-contaminated soil, vegetable oils, dairy waste, and spoiled food [16]. Lipids are widely distributed in animals, plants and microorganisms, and their main role is in lipid metabolism [17]. Animal lipase is mainly derived from the pancreas

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